When Zum stops on the trail, he is not ready to move forward. If I think he is going to back up, it is better to wait. I let him stand there. Waiting isn’t bad. Zum needs plenty of time to look around and feel secure in his environment. It will take many repetitions for Zum to learn that he doesn’t need to panic, no matter what strange thing he sees for the first time. When I think I have a good chance of getting Zum to move forward, I kiss. And he moves forward with confidence.